Summary Previous surveys in Myanmar indicate that soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are a significant public health problem. However the majority of these surveys are small scale or hospital based. To date there has been no countrywide assessment of the prevalence and intensity of STH infection. We conducted a survey (June 2002–June 2003) to assess the magnitude of STH infection in school age children in each of the different ecological areas of the country. In each area, five schools were selected and from each one, 50 children were randomly chosen. Parasitological and nutritional data were collected from each child. We found an overall prevalence of infection of 69%: 18% had a moderate–heavy intensity of infection, 22% were anaemic. A pilot exercise to treat 25 000 school age children in the 200 schools of Nyangdone Township tested the strategy before scaling up and to generate some rough costings. A crude calculation of the expenditure to buy and deliver the drugs, including the costs incurred in the teacher training, concluded that the cost per child was approximately 0.05 USD.