Skip to main content

Free Content Spatial clustering of malaria and associated risk factors during an epidemic in a highland area of western Kenya

Download Article:

You have access to the full text article on a website external to Ingenta Connect.

Please click here to view this article on Wiley Online Library.

You may be required to register and activate access on Wiley Online Library before you can obtain the full text. If you have any queries please visit Wiley Online Library

Abstract:

Summary

The epidemiology of malaria over small areas remains poorly understood, and this is particularly true for malaria during epidemics in highland areas of Africa, where transmission intensity is low and characterized by acute within and between year variations. We report an analysis of the spatial distribution of clinical malaria during an epidemic and investigate putative risk factors. Active case surveillance was undertaken in three schools in Nandi District, Western Kenya for 10 weeks during a malaria outbreak in May–July 2002. Household surveys of cases and age-matched controls were conducted to collect information on household construction, exposure factors and socio-economic status. Household geographical location and altitude were determined using a hand-held geographical positioning system and landcover types were determined using high spatial resolution satellite sensor data. Among 129 cases identified during the surveillance, which were matched to 155 controls, we identified significant spatial clusters of malaria cases as determined using the spatial scan statistic. Conditional multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of malaria was higher in children who were underweight, who lived at lower altitudes, and who lived in households where drugs were not kept at home.

Keywords: Kenya; highland malaria; household distribution; malaria; risk factors; spatial clustering

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01272.x

Affiliations: 1:  Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK 2:  Division of Malaria Control, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya 3:  Division of Vector Borne Disease, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya 4:  Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya 5:  Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Charlottenlund, Denmark

Publication date: July 1, 2004

bsc/tmih/2004/00000009/00000007/art00002
dcterms_title,dcterms_description,pub_keyword
6
5
20
40
5

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more