Free Content High prevalence of ectopic kidney in Coast Province, Kenya

You have access to the full text article on a website external to ingentaconnect.

Please click here to view this article on Wiley Online Library.

You may be required to register and activate access on Wiley Online Library before you can obtain the full text. If you have any queries please visit Wiley Online Library

Download Article:


Summary Objective 

To establish the prevalence of congenital urinary tract abnormalities in a full population-based ultrasound survey of an area of coastal Kenya. Methods 

Ultrasound examination of 3118 residents of 912 households, including allavailable subjects over 2 years of age, residing in five contiguous rural villages 50 km south of Mombasa. Results 

Survey findings indicated simple renal ectopia in 11 of 3118 subjects (0.35%) and renal agenesis in three (0.096%). No cases of horseshoe kidney or complex urinary anomaly were detected, and no cases of multiple congenital anomaly were found. Ectopia cases were evenly distributed between men and women, and across the five study villages. None of the individuals affected by renal ectopia were closely related (i.e. <5th-degree relations). Conclusion 

There is an unusually high prevalence of ectopia among unrelated subjects in this area. In this setting, the findings suggest either a common exposure to teratogenetic factors, or a hereditary condition with variable penetrance, where more severely affected individuals are not observed because of foetal/infant mortality.

Keywords: Kenya/epidemiology; abnormalities/epidemiology; abnormalities/ultrasonography; kidney/abnormalities

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1:  Formerly Department of Radiology, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya 2:  Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA 3:  Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya 4:  Department of Radiology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya 5:  Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya

Publication date: May 1, 2004

Related content



Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more