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Free Content Evaluation of the sensitivity of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes to two insect repellents: DEET and KBR 3023

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We conducted laboratory tests to assess the sensitivity to the insect repellent 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-, 1-methylpropylester (known as KBR 3023 or Picaridin, trade name Bayrepel®) of West African strains of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and of malaria vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex, in comparison with the standard repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET). Test mosquitoes were exposed according to a ‘separate arms’ protocol to logarithmic dose increments applied on one arm of human subjects to evaluate the relative potency, and the median effective dosages (ED50 and ED90). According to a logistic regression model fitted to the experimental data, the dose–response relationship for the two repellents was the same within each species, thus pooled ED values were assessed for each mosquito separately. The median ED of KBR 3023 and DEET was estimated at 0.78 (95% confidence limits (CI): 0.57–1.04) and at 0.018 g/cm2 (0.004–0.052) for mosquitoes of the An. gambiae complex and Ae. aegypti, respectively. ED90 values were 125.6 (81.4–201.3) and 24.0 g/cm2 (5.7–208.5) for An. gambiae s.l. and Ae. aegypti, respectively. The relative potency of KBR 3023 was not significantly different from that of DEET for An. gambiae s.l. (95% confidence limits 0.7–1.0), whereas in the case of Ae. aegypti it was with 95% probability 1.1–2.0 times more potent than DEET. On the basis of available evidence, KBR 3023 represents a promising alternative to DEET for personal protection against bites of these important vectors of disease in the Afrotropical region.

Keywords: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae complex; DEET; KBR 3023; Picaridin; West Africa; effective dosage; insect repellents; laboratory assays; relative potency

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1:  Centre National de Recherche et Formation sur le Paludisme, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso 2:  Département d'Entomologie Appliquée, Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Publication date: March 1, 2004


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