Influence of socio-economic background and antenatal care programmes on maternal mortality in Surabaya, Indonesia
To determine the risk factors, such as socio-economic background, quality of antenatal care and availability of family planning, responsible for high maternal mortality in Surabaya, Indonesia. Methods
The study used a case-control design. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, comparing 59 maternal deaths and 177 women survivors in the referral hospital, from 1996 to 1999. Results
The risk factors for maternal mortality were: living outside of Surabaya [odds ratio (OR) = 11.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.0–29.2], unemployment (OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 1.7–13.8), unavailability of toilet facilities (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.0–7.7), <4 antenatal visits (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1–5.5) and initial visit to antenatal care facilities after the fourth month of pregnancy (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.3–7.0). There was no significant association between maternal mortality and the availability of family planning. Conclusion
Low socio-economic background and the availability of antenatal care have a significant influence on maternal mortality in Surabaya, Indonesia.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: International Center for Medical Research, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan 2: Department of Hygiene, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan 3: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan 4: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr Soetomo Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
Publication date: 01 September 2003