Plasmodium falciparum gametocytaemia in Nigerian children: before, during and after treatment with antimalarial drugs
We evaluated gametocyte carriage and intensities of gametocytaemia in 710 children presenting with acute, symptomatic, uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria who were treated with various antimalarial drug regimens: chloroquine (CQ); chloroquine plus chlorpheniramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist that reverses CQ resistance in P. falciparum in vitro and in vivo (CQCP); chloroquine plus ketotifen, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist that reverses CQ resistance in P. falciparum in vitro but not in vivo in the present study (CQK); chloroquine plus pyrimethamine–sulphadoxine (CQPS); amodiaquine (AQ); amodiaquine plus pyrimethamine–sulphadoxine (AQPS); and pyrimethamine–sulphadoxine (PS). On presentation, gametocyte carriage was significantly higher in CQ-resistant (CQ-R) than in CQ-sensitive (CQ-S) infections. Following CQ treatment, gametocyte carriage was significantly higher at all times after treatment and gametocyte density significantly higher on day 7 of follow-up in children with CQ-R than CQ-S infections. CQ treatment of CQ-R infections resulted in significantly higher density of gametocytaemia on day 7 compared with pre-treatment (day 0), but similar treatment of CQ-S infections resulted in significantly lower density of gametocytaemia on day 14 compared with day 0. Among children with CQ-R infections, those with mild (RI) resistance carried gametocytes significantly more often than those with moderate (RII) resistance on days 5 and 7 of follow-up (P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Disposition kinetics of gametocytaemia using a non-compartmental method showed that the half life of gametocytaemia was longer and the clearance slower in children with CQ-R than in those with CQ-S infections. PS treatment was associated with significantly higher gametocyte carriage at all times between days 1 and 14, and significantly higher gametocytaemias on days 7 and 14 than in the other treatment regimens. Combination of AQ with PS significantly decreased gametocyte carriage at all times between days 1 and 14 of follow-up. Continuing use of CQ in CQ-R infections may encourage transmission of CQ-R infections; SP monotherapy is associated with significant gametocyte carriage and gametocytaemia and may encourage transmission of SP resistant infections as resistance to the drug increases.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics and Institute for Medical Research and Training, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Publication date: 2003-09-01