Anthelmintic resistance in human helminths: a review
We briefly review reports on drug resistance in human helminths and compare the factors which contribute to the development of anthelmintic resistance in livestock and man, i.e. high treatment frequency, single-drug regimens, targeting and timing of mass treatments and underdosing. Conclusions are drawn from the mistakes in the treatment and control of livestock helminths. The advantages and inconveniences of current methods for the detection of drug resistance in helminths of livestock are discussed and some suggestions are put forward to standardize the tests for the detection of resistance in human helminths. Finally, based on veterinary experience, some recommendations are made to reduce the risks of development of drug resistance in human helminths. The dramatic and rapid spread of resistance to all major classes of veterinary anthelmintics should be a warning against too strong a reliance on drugs in helminth control programmes.