Skip to main content

Free Content Susceptibility to development of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease: review of possible risk factors

Download Article:

You have access to the full text article on a website external to Ingenta Connect.

Please click here to view this article on Wiley Online Library.

You may be required to register and activate access on Wiley Online Library before you can obtain the full text. If you have any queries please visit Wiley Online Library


Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, also known as Buruli ulcer (BU), is a disease of subcutaneous fat tissue. BU is prevalent in riverine and swamp areas of the tropical zone in Africa, Asia and South America, and a few scattered foci in Australia. The mode of transmission of M. ulcerans has not been fully elucidated, but inoculation into the subcutaneous tissues probably occurs through penetrating skin trauma. BU has not been linked with HIV infection. Antimycobacterial drug treatment is ineffective, and treatment is surgical. Patients eventually develop scars and contractures, with resulting disabilities, and the disease imposes a large burden on affected populations. The incidence of BU has dramatically increased in West African countries over the last decade. There is an urgent need for research into host and environmental risk factors for BU in order to develop effective strategies to combat this disease. We review possible genetic host susceptibility factors for BU that are relevant in other mycobacterial diseases: natural resistance-associated macrophage protein-1 (NRAMP-1), HLA-DR, vitamin D3 receptor, mannose binding protein, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) receptor, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1α, 1β and their receptor antagonists; and IL-12. Schistosoma haematobium infection is highly endemic in many BU foci in West Africa, with a striking increase in transmission after river dams were constructed. This observation, and the observations from interaction of schistosomiasis and tuberculosis, have fuelled our hypothesis that schistosomiasis is a risk factor for BU by driving the host immune response towards a predominantly Th-2 pattern, away from a Th-1 preponderant protection against mycobacterial infection. If the latter hypothesis is confirmed, enhanced schistosomiasis control should impact on BU.

Keywords: Mycobacterium ulcerans; Schistosoma haematobium; gene polymorphism; tuberculosis

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Department of Internal Medicine, Groningen University Hospital, Groningen, The Netherlands 2: Department of Human Genetics, Groningen University Hospital, Groningen, The Netherlands 3: Laboratory of Immunology, Groningen University Hospital, Groningen, The Netherlands

Publication date: July 1, 2001


Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more