Lymphatic filariasis in Ghana: entomological investigation of transmission dynamics and intensity in communities served by irrigation systems in the Upper East Region of Ghana
We conducted an entomological study to document the effect of irrigation on the vectors and transmission dynamics of lymphatic filariasis in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Mosquitoes were collected by indoor spraying of houses in a cluster of communities located around irrigation projects (Tono and Vea) and others without reservoirs (Azoka). Anopheles gambiae s.s. was the dominant species and major vector, followed by An. funestus. Anopheles arabiensis constituted 9–14% of the An. gambiae complex but none were infective. Culex quinquefasciatus was also not infective in these communities. Chromosomal examinations showed that >60% (n=280–386) of the An. gambiae s.s. in irrigated communities were Mopti forms whilst 73% (n=224) in the non-irrigated area were Savannah forms. Infectivity rates (2.3–2.8 vs. 0.25), worm load (1.62–2.04 vs. 1.0), annual bites per person (6.50–8.83 vs. 0.47) and annual transmission potential (13.26–14.30 vs. 0.47) were significantly higher in irrigated communities.
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