Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: a seroepidemiological and tick survey in the Sultanate of Oman
In 1995 and 1996, 4 persons from the Sultanate of Oman were confirmed with clinical Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF). To assess the prevalence of CCHF virus infection in Oman, a convenience sample of imported and domestic animals from farms, abattoirs and livestock markets was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to CCHF virus. Ticks were collected from selected animals, identified, pooled by species, host and location and tested for evidence of infection with CCHF virus by antigen-capture ELISA. Serum samples from individuals working in animal and nonanimal contact-related jobs were also tested for CCHF antibodies. Serological evidence of infection was noted in 108 (22%) of 489 animals. Most of the ticks collected (618 of 912) from all species of sampled livestock were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, a competent vector and reservoir of CCHF virus. 243 tick pools were tested for CCHF antigen, and 19 pools were positive. Of the individuals working in animal contact-related jobs, 73 (30.3%) of 241 non-Omani citizens and only 1 (2.4%) of 41 Omani citizens were CCHF antibody-positive. Butchers were more likely to have CCHF antibody than persons in other job categories. The presence of clinical disease and the serological results for animals and humans and infected Hyalomma ticks provide ample evidence of the presence of CCHF virus in yet another country in the Arabian Peninsula.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA 2: Ministry of Health, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman 3: Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
Publication date: February 1, 2000