Upregulation of the chemokines Rantes, MCP-1, MIP-1a and MIP-2 in early infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and inhibition by sympathetic denervation of the spleen
We examined the induction of 4 chemokines during early experimental African trypanosomiasis using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. mRNA expression and protein production of Rantes, MCP-1, MIP-1a and MIP-2 were studied in splenocytes obtained at 0 h, 4 h and 12 h post-infection. Splenic denervation was performed to study the role of the central nervous system in early infection. The mRNA for Rantes increased at 4 h and declined at 12 h, but the protein level was high at both time-points. MCP-1 and MIP-1a had elevated mRNA and protein levels at 12 h post-infection. MIP-2 mRNA was high at both 4 h and 12 h, but the protein level was only increased at 12 h. Splenic denervation, but not sham operation, suppressed these responses. The upregulation of these chemokines during very early infection suggests a chemokine role in the developing immunopathology. The sympathetic nervous system may, however, participate in modulation of such early immune responses.