La transmission du paludisme dans la zone de Niakhar, Senegal
The anopheline bioecology and the malaria transmission were studied from January to December 1995 in three villages of the sahelian rural area of Niakhar, Senegal. This area of 29 000 inhabitants, has been for several decades, a regional observatory for population and health. The three methods used for collecting mosquitoes were the collection at larval stages, the all night human biting collection, and the pyrethrum spray catch in houses during afternoons. The anophelines collected were, by numerical importance: Anopheles arabiensis, An. rufipes, An. gambiae, An. pharoensis, An. funestus and An. coustani. In the An. gambiae complex, An. arabiensis represented 97% of man biting females and 98% of half gravid resting females (difference not significant); the other reminding species of this complex was always An. gambiae. These two species belonging to the An. gambiae complex were responsible for the totality of the transmission. The anthropophilic index, obtained from half gravid indoor resting An. gambiae s.l., was 83%. The annual biting rate of An. gambiae s.l. varied from 512 to 1558 bites per man per night, depending on the villages. Vectors were observed all year long but their densities were low during the dry season. Vector population presented a notable increase due to the rains, with a maximum of about 10 bites per man per night in September or at the beginning of October; during September the biting rate represented 48% of the annual biting rate. The sporozoitic index of An. gambiae s.l., obtained by ELISA revealing the circumsporozoite protein, was 1.6% for human biting females and 1.8% for half-gravid resting females (difference not significant). Plasmodium falciparum was the only plasmodial species observed among infected anophelines. The annual transmission in the two villages representative of the Niakhar area were 9 and 12 bites of infected anophelines per man, occurring mainly from August to October. In the third village, not representative of the area regarding permanent breeding places, the transmission was 26 bites of infected anopheline per man per year. These results were discussed in the Senegambian and sahelian contexts.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: ORSTOM (Institut francais de recherche scientifique pour le developpement en cooperation), Dakar, Senegal 2: Departement de Biologie animale, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal 3: Departement d'epidemiologie des affections parasitaires, Ecole nationale de medecine et pharmacie, Bamako, Mali
Publication date: 01 August 1998