Recurrence of kala-azar after PKDL: role of co-factors
Recurrence of kala-azar after post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) has remained uncommon. We report here two patients with recurrence of kala-azar (KA) after development of PKDL. In one case the second attack of KA was preceded by repeated attacks of malaria and tuberculosis, and in the other the recurrence of KA followed an attack of measles. While measles has earlier been suggested as co-factor in inducing transformation from sub-clinical to clinical kala-azar, malaria was demonstrated to enhance the virulence and invasiveness of Leishmania in an experimental model as well as under natural condition. We propose that in our cases, measles and repeated attacks of malaria or tuberculosis led to immunosuppression and recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL).
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