Self-reported compliance with a malaria chemoprophylaxis regimen of proguanil (PG) plus chloroquine (CQ) was assessed in a cohort of 547 Dutch travellers who visited a single travel clinic when travelling to various areas endemic for falciparum malaria. 503 (92%) had taken PG/CQ prophylaxis, but only 326 (60%) reported regular and uninterrupted use throughout the journey and 4 weeks afterwards. Compliance differed by travel destination and was 45% in South America, 52% in West Africa, 53% in South-east Asia, 60% in the Indian Subcontinent and 78% in East Africa. Parasitologically confirmed falciparum malaria occurred in 5 travellers (0.9%), including 3 of 24 non-compliant travellers to West Africa (12.5%). Apart from destination, independent risk factors for non-compliance were young age, extensive travel experience and adventurous travel. Compliance with protection against mosquito bites was 80% for wearing long-sleeved shirts and long-legged trousers after sunset, 73% for use of repellents, 56% for sleeping under bednets and 37% for keeping the sleeping quarters free of mosquitoes. Although 440 travellers (80%) reported to have taken two or more of these measures at least once, only 88 (16%) had done so on a daily basis. Daily use of bednets was reported more frequently among subjects who were non-compliant with chemoprophylaxis. Compliance regarding malaria chemoprophylaxis should be improved, particularly in high-risk areas such as Sub-saharan Africa, with extra attention to young, adventurous travellers. More emphasis should be placed on prevention of Anopheles bites.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine and AIDS. University of Amsterdam. Amsterdam, The Netherlands., , 2:
Department of Infectious Diseases, Municipal Health Service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.