Anthraquinones in Rheum palmatum and Rumex dentatus(Polygonaceae), and phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas(Euphorbiaceae) with molluscicidal activity against the schistosome vector snails Oncomelania,Biomphalaria, and Bulinus

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Abstract:

Hot water extracts of Rheum palmatum and Rheum dentatus (from China) showed molluscicidal activity against the snails Oncomelania hupensis, Biomphalaria glabrata and Bulinus globosus which are vectors of Schistosoma japonicumS. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively. Activity was correlated with anthraquinones which were identified by HPLC: rhein and chrysophanol‐anthron were most active (>50% dead snails after 2 days in a 0.03% solution). Molluscicidal activity was intermediate with Rheum‐emodin and physcion and was not detectable with cinnamic acid or Aloe‐emodin. The snail O. hupensis tended to be more sensitive for several compounds than B. glabrata Extracts of Jatropha curcas seeds (from Mali) showed molluscicidal activity against both B. glabrata and O. hupensis the latter being the more sensitive snail. The activity was associated with phorbol esters extracted from Jatropha oil. Of the pure phorbol esters tested, 4‐phorbol‐13‐decanoate killed both snail species at a concentration of 0.001% (10 p.p.m). As Jatropha is locally grown in Mali for other purposes, it might potentially be exploited for schistosomiasis control.

Keywords: Biomphalaria; Bulinus; Jatropha; Oncomelania; Rheum; Rumex; Schistosoma; anthraquinones; phorbol esters; plant molluscicides

Document Type: Original Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3156.1997.d01-242.x

Affiliations: 1: Institute of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, University, Heidelberg, Germany, 2: Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, University, Heidelberg, Germany, 3: Centre de Biologie et d'Ecologie Tropicale et Méditerranéenne, Université, Perpignan, France, 4: Project Pourghère, CNESOLER, B.P. 134, Bamako, Mali, 5: Department of Parasitology, Tongji Medical University, Wuhan, P.R. China

Publication date: February 1, 1997

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