Systematics and evolution of the cutworm moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): evidence from two protein-coding nuclear genes
A broad molecular systematic survey of Noctuidae was undertaken to test recent hypotheses on the problematic definitions and relationships of the subfamilies, with special emphasis on the ‘trifines.’ An initial hypothesis of noctuid classification to the subtribal level was synthesized from recent reviews, and then sampled as broadly as possible. Concatenated sequences for the nuclear genes elongation factor-1α (EF-1α; 1200 bp) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC; 700–1100 bp) were analysed for a total of 146 exemplar species, twice that of a previous study. Trees were estimated using likelihood, distance, and both equally weighted and ‘six-parameter’ parsimony. Of the 144 possible nodes, bootstrap support (BP) was ≥ 50% for ∼80, and ≥ 80% for ∼60. There was very strong support (BP ≥ 90%) for an ‘L.A.Q.’ clade encompassing nearly all quadrifine noctuids plus Arctiidae and Lymantriidae, decisively rendering Noctuidae paraphyletic. We present a new classification for Noctuoidea in which Noctuidae sensu stricto is restricted to trifines; most quadrifine subfamilies are raised to full families. Within the ‘L.A.Q.’ clade, Aganainae and Herminiinae were strongly grouped, but other relationships were weakly supported, probably due to limited taxon sampling. Nolidae and Euteliinae + Stictopterinae are generally grouped with the ‘L.A.Q.’ clade, but with weak support. All analyses favour the broadest definitions proposed for the trifine clade (our Noctuidae sensu stricto) although support is not strong, except that the exemplar of Eustrotiinae: Eublemmini is placed securely in the ‘L.A.Q.’ clade. Numerous recent proposals for dismantling and recombining the ‘Hampsonian’ traditional trifine subfamilies are strongly supported, most notably a broadly defined ‘true cutworm’ clade (Noctuinae s.l.), encompassing the greater part of the traditional subfamilies Amphipyrinae, Cuculliinae, Hadeninae and Noctuinae s.s. (BP ≥ 95%). Within this clade there is strong support for Apameini s.s.+ Xylenini s.l. and for Noctuinae s.s. and divisions thereof, but little support for monophyly or subdivision of Hadeninae. Noctuinae s.l. invariably are allied with Heliothinae, scattered remnants of the traditional Amphipyrinae, and several smaller groups in a broader ‘pest clade’, albeit with weak support. Relationships among the remaining ‘lower’ trifines are not strongly resolved. Mapping of a preliminary synopsis of species diversities, host use patterns and latitudinal distributions on the phylogeny suggests that the diversification of trifines may have been promoted, to a degree unique among Macrolepidoptera, by the Tertiary expansion of seasonal, open habitats and their associated herbaceous floras.
Document Type: Research Article
Agricultural Scientific Collections Unit, Orange Agricultural Institute, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Orange, NSW, Australia,
Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, U.S.A., and
Publication date: January 1, 2006