Abstract. Previous studies have demonstrated that the prolactin stimulation of most lactational processes (casein, lactose, and triglyceride synthesis) requires an earlier stimulating effect of prolactin on the synthesis of the polyamines. Spermidine appears to be the specific polyamine required for prolactin to enhance milk product synthesis. Inorganic iodide is present in milk at more than an order of magnitude higher concentration than that of the maternal plasma. Since prolactin stimulates iodide accumulation in milk, the goal of these studies was to determine the role of the polyamines in this hormone response. Two drugs were employed in these studies: DFMO (difluoromethylornithine), which inhibits ornithine decarboxylase, and MGBG [methylglyoxal bis(guanyl-hydrazone)], which inhibits S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase. In mammary gland explants from midpregnant (10–14 days of pregnancy) mice, MGBG at 100 μM abolished the prolactin stimulation of iodide uptake and incorporation into milk proteins, whereas DFMO caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the PRL response. Selected sensitivity of the MGBG and DFMO inhibitions was validated by a reversal of the drug inhibitions with the addition of 1 mM spermidine to the culture medium. These data suggest that the polyamine signaling pathway is involved in the prolactin stimulation of iodide uptake into milk.