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7. Whiplash-Associated Disorders

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Whiplash-associated disorders are comprised of a range of symptoms of which neck complaints and headaches are the most significant spine related.

In the acute and sub-acute stage of the disorder, conservative treatment for minimally 6 months is recommended, active mobilization is slightly better than passive treatment. Thereafter, interventional treatment may be considered. The available evidence for injection of Botulinum toxin A (2 B−) and intra-articular corticosteroid injections (2 C−) supports a negative recommendation.

Radiofrequency treatment of the ramus medialis (medial branch) of the ramus dorsalis is recommended (2 B+).

Keywords: evidence-based medicine; facet joint; interventional management; pain; whiplash

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, Catharina Ziekenhuis, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; 2: Pain Management Department, Anesthesiology Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA; 3: Pain and Rehabilitation, Coastal Orthopedics, Cleveland Clinic, Bradenton, Florida, U.S.A.; 4: Department of Anesthesiology and Multidisciplinary Pain Centre, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Genk, Belgium 5: Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands;

Publication date: March 1, 2010

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