Pain Assessment in Nonverbal Older Adults with Advanced Dementia
Pain assessment is a particular challenge among individuals with advanced dementia who lack the ability to formulate and express their experience of discomfort. PURPOSE:
Awareness of pain scales and methods specifically designed for use with nonverbal individuals with dementia is critical to expanded use and testing in clinical settings. SOURCES:
Computerized literature searches using four databases revealed the five observational scales and two caregiver reports methods reviewed. CONCLUSIONS:
A small number of valid, reliable, and sensitive scales are available for use by nurses and allied health personnel. Each has strengths and limitations and all would benefit from additional testing.