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The efficacy of two different lipid-based amphotericin B in neonatal Candida septicemia

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Abstract

Background: Fungal sepsis is becoming more frequent in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and has a high mortality rate due to the invasive nature of the disease and to the insufficiency of low doses and high incidence of renal problems with effective doses of amphotericin B. New generation lipid formulated amphotericin B preparations may be more efficient because they are less toxic to be applied in target doses. However, there is limited experience in neonates and preterm infants.

Methods: The charts of 917 patients admitted to NICU between 2001 and 2003 were reviewed and the data of 21 patients with systemic Candida infection, requiring different amphotericin B therapy, were analyzed.

Results: Infants with fungal septicemia were treated with amphotericin B lipid complex (Abelcet®)(n = 10) and liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome®)(n = 9) for a mean duration of 21 and 18 days. The mean gestational age of the patients was 30.9 ± 4.2 weeks and mean birth weight was 1536 ± 714 g. Two patients in the Abelcet® group and one patient in the AmBisome® group died during therapy. Fungal eradication was achieved in 16 surviving infants and mean eradication time was 8.1 ± 2.6 days and mean duration of therapy was 19.2 ± 4.1 days. Mortality rates related to treatment failure were similar being 20% in the Abelcet® group and 11% in the AmBisome® group. No patient showed severe side-effects from the antifungal therapy; the incidence of minimal side-effects were similar in both groups and they were elevated serum transaminase levels in six patients, increased serum creatinine in one patient and hypokalemia in one patient.

Conclusion: Both preparations have the same benefits for the treatment of neonatal fungal sepsis and they can be used safely in neonates including very low birth weight infants. However, the clinician must keep in mind the cost of treatment.
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Keywords: candida; newborn; sepsis; treatment

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Pediatrics 2: Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Ege University Medical Faculty, Izmir, Turkey

Publication date: 01 December 2005

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