Identification of restorers and maintainers for developing basmati and non-basmati hybrids in rice, Oryza sativa
Twenty-seven improved aromatic lines of germplasm and 18 non-aromatic disease-resistant genotypes of rice were test-crossed with four cytoplasmic male-sterile lines (IR 58025A, IR 62829A, PMS 3A and PMS 10A). Thirteen aromatic and 10 non-aromatic genotypes were selected based on pollen fertility, and crosses were repeated to confirm sterility-maintaining and fertility-restoring ability. Genotypes were categorized as effective restorers (> 80% spikelet fertility), partial restorers (21–79% spikelet fertility) and maintainers (< 1% spikelet fertility). The effective basmati restorers identified were Basmati 385, Chandan, P1031-8-5-1, HKR 241-IET-12020, SAF Khalsa 7 and Karnal Local. The basmati maintainers identified were Basmati 370, Pusa basmati 1, P615-K-167–13 and P1173–4-1. The frequency of restorers obtained was higher for the non-aromatic than the aromatic basmati type. The performance of restorers varied with cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) line, location and season of testing. The differential ability to restore fertility in the CMS lines that have the wild abortive (WA) cytosterile system could result from different nuclear backgrounds of the CMS lines. These restorers and maintainers possess acceptable grain dimensions, a desirable degree of aroma, volume expansion through linear kernel elongation and cooking quality characteristics of basmati rice. These genotypes will contribute to developing basmati hybrids and provide restorers and maintainers with acceptable key basmati quality characteristics.
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