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Hordeum bulbosum - a new source of disease resistance – transfer of resistance to leaf rust and mosaic viruses from H. bulbosum into winter barley

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An outline is given of results for the transfer of new resistances against leaf rust and barley mosaic viruses from Hordeum bulbosum into winter barley. Progenies from backcrosses of barley cultivars with H. bulbosum hybrids were tested both in conventional breeding trials and in additional tests under controlled conditions. Resistance to both pathogens proved to be stable and of good heritability, with differences occurring which depended on the combinations used. Lines with resistance to all leaf rust and mosaic viruses tested, or to either one, were selected. Both resistances segregated independently.

Leaf rust of barley (Puccinia hordei) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) are diseases that occur regularly in central Europe. They cause economically relevant yield loss, depending on the course of the epidemic which is influenced by weather conditions. Therefore, intensive breeding for resistance to these pathogens has been conducted for decades. As a result, almost all resistance genes evaluated in different Hordeum vulgare varieties and which have been transferred into cultivars so far have become been overcome by the pathogens. This is why an intensive search for new sources of resistance in Hordeum spontaneum and Hordeum bulbosum commenced in the 1980s.

Pohler and Szigat (1982) showed that traits from H. bulbosum can be transferred to cultivated barley. The resistance to mildew and rust diseases in H. bulbosum and in the hybrids with H. bulbosum was described by Xu and Snape (1989). Proof of the transfer of mildew resistance into cultivated barley was the next step ( Xu and Kasha 1992, Michel et al. 1994, Pickering et al. 1995).

The transfer of effective leaf rust resistance has been particularly important for winter barley breeding in the northern regions of Germany, where the epidemic occurrence of this fungus causes severe yield losses. So far, little is known about leaf rust resistance in H. bulbosum. Another major challenge over the last two decades has been the search for new sources of resistance to barley mosaic viruses.

In continuation of the work of Szigat et al. (1997), the present paper outlines the breeding results for the transfer of new resistances to rust and virus diseases from H. bulbosum into winter barley.
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Keywords: Erysiphe; H. vulgare; Hordeum bulbosum; Puccinia hordei; Rhynchosporium; barley mosaic viruses; resistance transfer

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Bundesanstalt für Züchtungsforschung an Kulturpflanzen, Institut für Epidemiologie und Resistenz, Theodor-Roemer-Weg 4, D-06449 Aschersleben, Germany; 2: Mühlberg 6, D-18276 Gülzow-Güstrow, Germany

Publication date: 01 January 2000

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