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The objective of the present study was to compare two chemometric approaches for characterizing the rheological properties of fruits from puncture test force/displacement curves. The first approach (parameter approach) computed six texture parameters from the curves, which were supposed to be representative of skin hardness, fruit deformation before skin rupture, flesh firmness and mechanical work needed to penetrate the fruit. The second approach (whole curve approach) used the whole digitized curve (300 data points) in further data processing. Two experimental studies were compared: first, the variability of the rheological parameters of five apple cultivars; second, the rheological variability that was characterized as a function of storage conditions. For both approaches, factorial discriminant analysis was applied to discriminate the fruits based on the measured rheological properties. The qualitative groups in factorial discriminant analysis were either the apple cultivar or the storage conditions (days and temperatures of storage). The tests were carried out using cross-validation procedures, making it possible to compute the number of fruits correctly identified. Thus the percentage of correct identification was 92% and 87% for using the parameter and the whole curve approaches, respectively. The discrimination of storage duration was less accurate for both approaches giving about 50% correct identifications. Comparison of the percentage of correct classifications based on the whole curve and the parameter approaches showed that the six computed parameters gave a good summary of the information present in the curve. The whole curve approach showed that some additional information, not present in the six parameters, may be appropriate for a complete description of the fruit rheology.
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Keywords: Apple; digitized curve; factorial discriminant analysis; penetrometry; puncture test; storage; texture

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Institut National d'Horticulture 2 rue LeNôtre 49000 Angers France 2: Unité de Sensométrie et de Chimiométrie ENITIAA-INRA Rue d la Géraudière-BP 82225-44322 Nantes Cedex 03 France

Publication date: 2005-08-01

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