Thrombin enhances herpes simplex virus infection of cells involving protease-activated receptor 1
Background: We have previously shown that the surface of purified herpes family viruses can initiate thrombin production by expressing host-encoded and virus-encoded procoagulant factors. These enable the virus to bypass the normal cell-regulated mechanisms for initiating coagulation, and provide a link between infection and vascular disease. Objective: In the current study we investigated why these viruses may have evolved to generate thrombin. Methods: Using cytolytic viral plaque assays, the current study examines the effect of thrombin on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) or human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) infection by purified herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) and type 2 (HSV2). Results: Demonstrating that the availability of thrombin is an advantage to the virus, purified thrombin added to serum-free inoculation media resulted in up to a 3-fold enhancement of infection depending on the virus strain and cell type. The effect of thrombin on HUVEC infection was generally greater than its effect on HFF. To illustrate the involvement of thrombin produced during inoculation, hirudin was shown to inhibit the infection of each HSV strain, but only when serum containing clotting factors for thrombin production was present in media. The involvement of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) was supported using PAR1-activating peptides in place of thrombin and PAR1-specific antibodies to inhibit the effects of thrombin. Conclusion: These data show that HSV1 and HSV2 initiate thrombin production to increase the susceptibility of cells to infection through a mechanism involving PAR1-mediated cell modulation.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Canadian Blood Services, Research and Development Department, University of British Columbia and Centre for Blood Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver, BC, Canada 2: Infectious Disease Division, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Publication date: 01 May 2007