Skip to main content


The full text article is not available.

At present, only title information is available on for this article. This is due to copyright restrictions.



Sensory analysis is a precise and descriptive measuring technique to quantify human responses to stimuli. Odor, one of these stimuli, is basically the result of the interaction between a chemical stimulus and the olfactory receptor system, which can be described using a number of different dimensions and measures through different sensory tests: threshold, intensity and quality. To measure fragrance performance on the skin, these parameters are very important, but the main attribute to be evaluated is substantivity, thus the importance of the sensory scale chosen to measure perception, discriminate different intensities and determine the substantivity of the fragrance. Some studies comparing the labeled magnitude scale (LMS) with other magnitude scales and their derivations showed that the use of the LMS scale to measure fragrance intensity could semantically understand the intensity of the stimulus. Tests using this scale confirmed the applicability and efficiency of the LMS. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

The objective of this article is to review the techniques used to measure odor and fragrance intensities applied on the skin. The review shows general sensory techniques and their goals, the newest olfactory mechanism and its contribution to sensory evaluation and which attributes should be considered to measure odor. Substantivity/retentivity or longevity can be regarded as the most important attributes if you want to measure fragrance performance on the skin. Past studies showed different scales tested to measure odor, and some of them demonstrated that the labeled magnitude scale is very suitable to measure fragrance on the skin.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Laboratory of CosmetologyDepartment of Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of São PauloAv. Prof Lineu Prestes 580Butantã, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 05508-900 2: Givaudan do Brasil Ltda, São Paulo, Brazil

Publication date: 2009-12-01

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more