Time–course of cerebrospinal fluid histamine in the wake‐consolidated squirrel monkey
Central nervous system (CNS) histamine is low in individuals with narcolepsy, a disease characterized by severe fragmentation of both sleep and wake. We have developed a primate model, the squirrel monkey, with which we can examine the role of the CNS in the wake‐consolidation process, as these primates are day‐active, have consolidated wake and sleep and have cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that is readily accessible. Using this model and three distinct protocols, we report herein on the role of CNS histamine in the wake consolidation process. CSF histamine has a robust daily rhythm, with a mean of 24.9 ± 3.29 pg mL−1, amplitude of 31.7 ± 6.46 pg mL−1 and a peak at 17:49 ± 70.3 min (lights on 07:00–19:00 hours). These levels are not significantly affected by increases (up to 161 ± 40.4% of baseline) or decreases (up to 17.2 ± 2.50% of baseline) in locomotion. In direct contrast to the effects of sleep deprivation in non‐wake‐consolidating mammals, in whom CSF histamine increases, pharmacologically induced sleep (γ‐hydroxybutyrate) and wake (modafinil) have no direct effects on CSF histamine concentrations. These data indicate that the time–course of histamine in CSF in the wake‐consolidated squirrel monkey is robust against variation in activity and sleep and wake‐promoting pharmacological compounds, and may indicate that histamine physiology plays a role in wake‐consolidation such as is present in the squirrel monkey and humans.
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