Long‐term effectiveness of cognitive–behavioural self‐help intervention for nightmares
Nightmares are a prevalent disorder leading to daily impairments. Two cognitive–behavioural self‐help interventions – imagery rehearsal and exposure – recently showed short‐term efficacy compared to a waiting‐list and a group that recorded their nightmares. This paper reports the long‐term results of the imagery rehearsal (n = 103) and exposure (n = 95) interventions. Participants were assigned randomly to a condition after completing baseline measurements; they received a 6‐week self‐help intervention and completed questionnaires 4, 16 and 42 weeks after end of treatment. Initial effects on nightmare measures were almost completely sustained after 42 weeks (d = 0.50–0.70); no differences were found between exposure and imagery rehearsal therapy. These results suggest that nightmares should be targeted specifically and that an internet‐delivered self‐help intervention seems to be a good first option in a stepped‐care model.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Publication date: 2011-09-01