Hypoxia-induced changes in recovery sleep, core body temperature, urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin and free cortisol after a simulated long-duration flight
Fatigue and sleep disorders often occur after long-haul flights, even when no time zones are crossed. In this controlled study, we assessed the effects of two levels of hypoxia (at 8000 ft and 12 000 ft) on recovery sleep. Core body temperature (CBT), a circadian marker, urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin and free cortisol were studied in 20 young healthy male volunteers exposed for 8 h (08:00–16:00 hours) in a hypobaric chamber to a simulated cabin altitude of 8000 ft and, 4 weeks later, 12 000 ft. Each subject served as his own control. Sleep was recorded by polysomnography for three consecutive nights for each exposure. CBT was monitored by telemetry during the three 24-h cycles (control, hypoxic exposure and recovery). Free urinary cortisol and 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels were assayed twice daily between 08:00 and 20:00 hours (day) and between 20:00 and 08:00 hours (night). We showed significant changes in circadian patterns of CBT at both altitudes, suggesting a phase delay, and changes in recovery sleep but only at 12 000 ft. We observed an increase in sleep onset latency which correlated positively with the increase in CBT levels during the first recovery night and a decrease in the duration of stage N2 (formerly S2), which correlated negatively with the mid-range crossing time, a reliable phase marker of CBT rhythm. This study shows clearly the impact of hypobaric hypoxia on circadian time structure during air flights leading to a phase delay of CBT, independent of jet lag and consequences on sleep during recovery.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Institut de Médecine Navale du Service de Santé des Armées, Toulon 2: Institut de Médecine Aérospatiale du Service de Santé des Armées, Brétigny-sur-Orge 3: Service de Biochimie Médicale et Biologie Moléculaire, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France
Publication date: December 1, 2009