Structural equation modeling of sleep apnea, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in children
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), often concomitant with obesity, increases the risk for the metabolic syndrome. One mechanism that may participate in this association is upregulation of inflammatory pathways. We used structural equation modeling to assess the interrelations between childhood obesity, OSA, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. One hundred and eighty-four children (127 boys, mean age: 8.5 ± 4.1years) had height and weight measured, underwent overnight polysomnography and had fasting blood taken. The blood was analyzed for insulin, glucose, lipids, leptin, and cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α]. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate associations between the outcomes of interest including hypoxia, arousal (related to respiratory and spontaneous), obesity, metabolic dysfunction, and inflammatory markers. Two cytokine factors and one metabolic factor were derived for the SEM. These factors provided good fit in the structural equation model (χ2/df = 2.855; comparative fit index = 0.90, root mean squared error of approximation = 0.10) and all factor loadings were significantly different from zero (P ≤ 0.01). Overall, our results indicate that while obesity (as measured by body mass index z-score) has a major influence on the metabolic dysfunction associated with OSA, arousal indices, and cytokine markers may also influence this association. Our results support the hypothesis that OSA is a contributor to the mechanisms that link sleep, systemic inflammation and insulin resistance, and show that the interrelations may begin in childhood.