‘Nocturnal groaning’: just a sound or parasomnia?
We describe the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of 12 patients complaining of expiratory groaning during sleep. Groaning occurred almost exclusively during rapid eye movement sleep. We reviewed all the literature cases, obtaining a total sample of 27 patients. There is no evident association with any predisposing factors or underlying disease. The results obtained from empirical treatment, including drugs and CPAP, are unsatisfactory. The origins of nocturnal groaning, as well as the long-term prognosis, remained unexplained.