Clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of 34 patients with Kleine–Levin syndrome
There is only scant information on sleep characteristics and long-term follow-up in patients with Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS). This study describes the clinical course, results of polysomnography and long-term follow-up in a relatively large group of patients with KLS. During the years 1982–97, we encountered 34 patients (26 males and eight females) with KLS. We were able to obtain the original polysomnographs from 28 males and four females. In 25 patients, data regarding their present state of health were obtained. Fourteen agreed to be present at a detailed interview and examination while 11 gave the information by phone. The mean age at onset was 15.8 ± 2.8 years and the mean diagnostic delay, 3.8 ± 4.2 years. The mean duration of a single hypersomnolent attack was 11.5 ± 6.6 days. The main abnormal findings extracted out of 35 polysomnographs obtained from 32 patients during and/or in-between attacks included: decreased sleep efficiency, and frequent awakenings from sleep stage 2. All 25 patients reported present perfect health, with no evidence of behavioral or endocrine dysfunction. In adolescents with periodic hypersomnia, the diagnosis of KLS should be explored. Sleep recordings during a hypersomnolent period will often show frequent awakenings from sleep stage 2. The long-term prognosis is excellent.