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The influence of polyphenol rich apple pomace or red-wine pomace diet on the gut morphology in weaning piglets

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Alternative food ingredients, e.g. secondary plant compounds, are discussed to have beneficial effects and improve gut health. In this study, the effect of three different diets – normal piglets starter without additives, with apple pomace or with red-wine pomace – on the intestinal morphology was investigated from 3 days prior to weaning to 4 weeks post-weaning. At five time points, six piglets from each treatment group were slaughtered; at first time point only six animals from control group were slaughtered. Villus height, crypt depth and breadth of villi and crypts were determined in the jejunum, ileum and colon in 78 piglets. Additionally, the area of the Peyer's patches in the ileum was measured. In jejunum (p < 0.01) and ileum (p < 0.001) the villus length in the control group decreased after weaning but increased over the entire feeding experiment (p < 0.001). In the two-pomace groups, no decrease was measured after weaning. In jejunum, an increase in villi breadth occurred, 73% in the control group and approximately 10% in both treatment groups. A 35% increase was found in the ileum in all groups. Peyer's patches area increased approximately 21% in the control group over 26 days of treatment, whereas in other groups no significant differences were found. Different polyphenol rich pomaces have diverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Red-wine pomace has an inhibitory effect on the jejunum villi growth, whereas apple and red-wine pomace have stimulating effect on crypt size in piglet colon. Apple and red-wine pomace can reduce the GALT activation via the Peyer's patches in the ileum. In conclusion, the flavanoids rich feeding regimen showed positive effects on villi morphology, GALT activation and can improve pig health.

Keywords: apple pomace; intestinal morphology; piglets; red-wine pomace

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1:  Lehrstuhl für Physiologie, Zentralinstitut für Ernährung-und Lebensmittelforschung, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, D-85350 Freising, Germany 2:  Institut für Tierernährung und Futterwirtschaft, Bayerische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft (LfL), D-85586 Poing-Grub, Germany 3:  Fachgebiet Obstbau, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, D-85350 Freising, Germany

Publication date: August 1, 2007

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