ABSTRACT. The potential advantages of repeated breeding at a particular location should improve reproductive performance in long-lived species of birds. However, for short-lived species, natural selection should favor individuals that most quickly develop competency in reproduction. Therefore, we hypothesized that local breeding experience beyond the first breeding attempt at a particular location would have little effect on subsequent reproductive performance of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), a species where about 50% of adults breed only once in their lives. We tested this hypothesis using data collected from Tree Swallows in Michigan from 1993 to 2002. Because we were specifically interested in examining the effects of local breeding experience on reproductive performance, we restricted our analyses to after-second-year (ASY) females and their mates that we first encountered as breeders. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found no relationship between repeated local breeding experience and the reproductive performance of ASY female Tree Swallows and their mates as measured by clutch size and number of fledged young. However, pairs with more combined total local experience tended to lay eggs earlier in the season. These results suggest that Tree Swallows may benefit from breeding site fidelity, not because repeated local experience improves reproductive performance as measured by the production of fledglings, but because returning individuals acquire nest cavities earlier and are able to begin breeding earlier, providing time to renest in case of early nest failure.