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A review of the effectiveness of an established residential weight management intervention on short-term health outcomes in overweight and obese youth

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Abstract:

Background: 

The incidence of overweight and obesity in youth is rapidly escalating to epidemic proportions (WHO, 2004). Multi-component interventions have been highlighted as the treatment of choice (NICE, 2006) but the current evidence base is limited and many interventions have not been properly evaluated. The Carnegie International Camp (CIC), an annual, residential, multi-component weight management intervention, has been previously demonstrated to be effective across a range of health outcomes for overweight and obese children and adolescents (Gately et al., 2005). The current study aimed to review the continued effectiveness of the CIC programme through evaluation of the same range of health outcome parameters. Methods: 

Two hundred and ninety young people (aged 8–18 years) were recruited (UK and internationally) for the 2006–2008 CIC programmes. It was not possible to identify a control group or to obtain random samples due to the specific nature of the intervention. Anthropometric and psychological outcome variables were measured on the first (baseline) and last day of each participants stay, and repeated weekly. Outcome variables measured: weight, height, waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, aerobic fitness and self esteem. Some participants attended successive CIC programmes; only data from participants’ first programme attendance were included for analysis. To control for study attrition only complete data sets were included in the analysis. Independent t-tests were utilised to identify group differences at baseline between the participant cohort of the current study (2006–2008) and the 1999–2002 participant cohort evaluated by Gately et al. (2005). Repeated measuresanovatested for the significance of pre-post intervention changes within and between cohorts. Analysis was conducted using SPSS v16.0 with P < 0.05 accepted as significant. The CIC programme and all subsequent analyses were granted full ethical approval by NHS Leeds West Teaching Hospital Research Ethics Committee. Results: 

One hundred and ninety-three complete data sets were obtained (2006–2008); significant improvements (P < 0.05) were attained across all outcome variables in this cohort. Comparison with Gately et al. (2005) findings revealed similar changes were achieved in both studies: Discussion: 

Similarimprovements across outcome variables were achieved in both cohorts evaluated, demonstrating the continued acute efficacy of the CIC. Direct comparison between different interventions is difficult due to programme heterogeneity, but repetition of existing studies provides benefits such as increased sample size, reduces variation of results and increases confidence in the effects of the experimental factor being examined. Conclusion: 

The CIC continues to demonstrate an acute effectiveness in producing positive outcomes across a range of physiological and psychological variables associated with overweight and obesity in young people. Discussion: 

Similarimprovements across outcome variables were achieved in both cohorts evaluated, demonstrating the continued acute efficacy of the CIC. Direct comparison between different interventions is difficult due to programme heterogeneity, but repetition of existing studies provides benefits such as increased sample size, reduces variation of results and increases confidence in the effects of the experimental factor being examined. Conclusion: 

The CIC continues to demonstrate an acute effectiveness in producing positive outcomes across a range of physiological and psychological variables associated with overweight and obesity in young people. References: 

Gately, P.J., Cooke, C.B., Barth, J.H., Bewick, B.M., Radley, D., & Hill, A.J. (2005) Children's residential weight loss programs can work: a prospective cohort study of short-term outcomes for overweight and obese children. Pediatrics 116, 73–77.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2006) Obesity: the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in adults and children. London: NICE clinical guidance 43. Retrieved February 10, 2009 from http://www.nice.org.uk/CG43NICEGuideline.pdf.

World Health Organisation (2004) Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation on obesity. Geneva: WHO.

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-277X.2011.01175_1.x

Publication date: June 1, 2011

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