Dietary calcium, dairy food intake and metabolic abnormalities in HIV-infected individuals
Epidemiological data suggest that calcium intake may influence lipid metabolism. It is unknown whether this influence also occurs in individuals with HIV/AIDS. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary calcium, dairy food intake and metabolic parameters in individuals with HIV/AIDS. Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 100 individuals with HIV/AIDS. Calcium intakes and food group consumption were determined by a food 24-h dietary recall and a food frequency questionnaire, respectively. The level of physical activity was determined with the international physical activity questionnaire and metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (2001). Student’s t-test, one-way analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare the groups. Results:
The mean (SD) calcium intake was 559.5 (298.84) mg day−1 and dairy food consumption was 1.73 (0.78) servings per day. Dietary calcium intake below 700 mg day−1 had greater waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) but not significant and higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P = 0.07). Dairy food consumers (>2 servings per day) showed lower BMI (P < 0.01), waist circumference (P = 0.05), SBP and DBP (P < 0.05). There was a significant association between calcium intake, MS and hypertension. The odds ratio for MS was 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23–3.32] and for hypertension was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.44–4.44). Only 21% of the individuals were categorised in the moderate/intense physical activity level. Conclusions:
The results obtained suggest that a dietary pattern with higher proportion of calcium and fruits/vegetables may protect against abdominal obesity and hypertension in HIV-infected individuals.