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Usual diet in Bubis, a rural immigrant population of African origin in Madrid

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Abstract Objective 

To assess the usual diet of an immigrant Bubis population living in Madrid, the main ethnic group from the Island of Bioco, Equatorial Guinea, and explore how different it is from the predominant diet in West Africa and from the adult population of Madrid. Design 

Cross-sectional study. We randomly selected a sample of 213 Bubis aged 18–84 years, 83 men and 130 women, who were born in Bioco, emigrated and now live in the Madrid area. Participants were interviewed about their usual diet with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were also measured during interviews and prevalence of obesity was estimated as a body mass index (kg m−2). Setting 

The urban area of Madrid in 2001. Results 

The diet of the Bubis living in the metropolitan area of Madrid resembles more the urban diet observed among Spanish people than the traditional rural diet observed among people of West Africa. The percentage of calories from fat, protein and carbohydrates was 33.9, 18.3 and 47.7%, respectively. The Bubi diet presented a much higher protein intake and much lower fat intake than the usual diet in Cameroon. The usual Bubi diet also contained more protein and less fat and alcohol than the predominant diet of adult population living in the Madrid area. Women presented higher prevalence of obesity (23.2%) than men (11.0%), and even higher than that observed among Spanish women. Conclusions 

The first immigrant generation of Bubis in Madrid showed food and nutrient intakes closer to the prevalent diet in Madrid than to the diet of their native land. The impact of this westernization of the diet of this and other immigrant populations in Spain needs to be monitored in the future.
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Keywords: Africa; Bubis; Spain; diet; immigrants; nutrient intake; obesity

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain 2: Departamento de Salud Pública, Historia de la Ciencia y Ginecología, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche-Alicante, Spain

Publication date: 2005-02-01

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