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Snacking patterns influence energy and nutrient intakes but not body mass index

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Abstract:

Abstract Objective 

To study dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) patterns among US adults, stratified by snacking patterns. Design 

The 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) provided the study sample. Snacking episodes were defined as a ‘food and/or beverage break’, and subjects were classified as morning, afternoon, evening, multiple or never snackers. Subjects/setting 

Our study included data from 1756 men and 1511 women who provided two nonconsecutive, multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls. Statistical analyses 

Mean values of each subject's two 24-h recalls were used for analyses, and data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows and SUDAAN. Results 

Compared with women, men were more likely to be evening, multiple or never snackers. Male multiple snackers had significantly higher energy intakes than did afternoon and never snackers, whereas female multiple snackers had higher energy intakes than did morning, evening and never snackers. At the same time, male and female multiple snackers had more prudent energy-adjusted intakes of protein, cholesterol, calcium and sodium. Coffee, cola, milk, ice cream and fruits were among the most frequently consumed snacks by men and women. The BMI did not differ significantly across snacker categories. Conclusions 

These data indicate that snacking patterns have some effects on energy and nutrient intakes but not on BMI. Snack food choices remain a concern, especially beverages, including those that are sweetened. Vegetables and fruits as snacks should be encouraged.

Keywords: body mass index; energy; evening; snack

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-277X.2003.00417.x

Affiliations: 1: Department of Nutrition, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ, USA; 2: Office of Nutrition Services, Arizona Department of Health Services, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 3: Department of Nutritional Sciences, Human Environmental Services, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

Publication date: February 1, 2003

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