QUALITY OF BREAD SUPPLEMENTED WITH POPPED AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS GRAIN
The addition of popped Amaranthus cruentus grain to wheat bread formulation at 10, 15 and 20% levels (flour basis) was carried out to test the effects on sensory and nutritional characteristics of the supplemented bread samples. The addition of popped amaranth grain increased ash, protein and crude fiber content significantly. Zinc content increased by 42.6–74.6%, manganese content by 51.7–90.8%, magnesium content by 75.7–88.0% and calcium content by 57–171% in the supplementation ranges from 10 to 20% of popped amaranth grain. Bread samples supplemented with popped grains had a significantly higher content of squalene in comparison with the control sample (8–12 times higher). Loaf volume of supplemented bread samples decreased from 3.54 to 2.36 mL/g. Also, a significant increase in crumb hardness and lower crumb elasticity was observed. The supplementation contributed to denser crumb structure, more uniform porosity, improved crust color and flavor. It might be concluded that supplementation levels up to 15% (flour basis) were sensorially acceptable. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
Bread made from refined wheat flour, besides being a good source of energy, is considered to be nutritionally poor. Therefore, the addition of inexpensive staples with superior nutritional quality such as some pulses, cereals or pseudocereals to wheat flour could improve the nutritional quality of wheat products. Amaranth is a pseudocereal that contains high levels of fat, dietary fibers, lysine and minerals, especially calcium and magnesium. The addition of amaranth grain to wheat bread contributes to higher intakes of proteins, fibers, fat and minerals. The usage of popped amaranth grain is advantageous because it excludes the need for grain milling and the necessity for preparative steps before mixing in bakeries. In addition, thermal treatment increases the protein efficiency ratio and gelatinizes starch that affects positively the stability, strength and freshness of the crumb. Popped amaranth grain also contributes to the pleasant taste and overall acceptability of supplemented bread.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: October 1, 2008