WHEY POWDER AS A CARRIER IN SPRAY DRYING OF SUMAC CONCENTRATE
Whey and milk powders and guar gum were tested for their use in spray drying of the sumac flavor. Freshly harvested sumac berries were used to prepare the sumac extract for the spray drying. The ratio of carrier to core material (the sumac flavor) was fixed as 4:1 g/g for all samples and the soluble solids content in the solution was adjusted to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Absorbance (510 nm), acidity and pH were measured in the solution and SDP. The percent retention of flavoring compounds was determined. When milk powder was added to the sumac solution, it coagulated because of the acidity of sumac solution; therefore, it was not a suitable carrier for sumac. Another carrier was guar gum. However, it was not fed into the spray dryer because of its high water-holding capacity, which caused a viscous solution. Whey powder was the more suitable carrier to entrap sumac flavor. In addition, the taste of the final SDP was acceptable in which it can be added to slightly acidic food products (pH value of 5.2–5.7). It was also observed that the increasing initial solids content from 5 to 25% increased the retention of flavoring compounds from 6 to 11% based on the absorbance. In addition, the retention based on acidity was increased from approximately 14 to 70%, when the initial solids content increased from 5 to 25%. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
This study showed that whey powder can be used for encapsulation of sumac flavor using spray drying. Development of spray-dried flavoring compounds is very useful to the food industry. Eventually, the new product may be used in different formulations as an additive instead of the sumac extract. Additionally, this carrier may be used for other natural acidic fruit extracts in encapsulation operations.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: UNIDO Food and Aflatoxin Analysis LaboratoryGaziantep Exchange CommodityGatem, Gaziantep, Turkey 2: Department of Food EngineeringFaculty of EngineeringUniversity of Gaziantep27310 Gaziantep, Turkey
Publication date: February 1, 2008