Skip to main content

Validation of an LC–MS Method for the Detection and Quantification of BZP and TFMPP and their Hydroxylated Metabolites in Human Plasma and its Application to the Pharmacokinetic Study of TFMPP in Humans

Buy Article:

$51.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)



An LC–MS method was developed for benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), constituents of “party pills” or “legal herbal highs,” and their metabolites in human blood plasma. Compounds were resolved using a mixture of ammonium formate (pH 4.5, 0.01 M) and acetonitrile (flow rate of 1.0 mL/min) with a C18 column. Calibration curves were linear from 1 to 50 ng/mL (R2 > 0.99); the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5 ng/mL; the accuracy was >90%; the intra- and interday relative standard deviations (R.S.D) were <5% and <10%, respectively. Human plasma concentrations of TFMPP were measured in blood samples taken from healthy adults (n = 6) over 24 h following a 60-mg oral dose of TFMPP: these peaked at 24.10 ng/mL (±1.8 ng/mL) (Cmax) after 90 min (Tmax). Plasma concentrations of 1-(3-trifluoromethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) piperazine peaked at 20.2 ng/mL (±4.6 ng/mL) after 90 min. TFMPP had two disposition phases (t½ = 2.04 h (±0.19 h) and 5.95 h (±1.63 h). Apparent clearance (Cl/F) was 384 L/h (±45 L/h).

Keywords: BZP; TFMPP; forensic science; liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry; metabolism; pharmacokinetics; toxicology

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: School of Pharmacy, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand. 2: Department of Pharmacology, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand.

Publication date: 2010-09-01

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more