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Famprofazone as the Source of Methamphetamine and Amphetamine in Urine Specimen Collected During Sport Competition

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During a sport competition event in Taiwan, one urine specimen was found positive for both methamphetamine (2688 ng/mL) and amphetamine (462 ng/mL). The specimen donor claimed that she had taken Gewolen® (a nonprescription drug manufactured in Taiwan) for treating abdominal pain and the medication was presented. Laboratory investigation confirmed that Gewolen® contains famprofazone, which is known to metabolize to methamphetamine and amphetamine and is included in the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Study on the excretion profiles of three volunteers ingesting 50 mg famprofazone produced the following patterns similar to that observed in the case specimen: (a) the ratio of methamphetamine to amphetamine was approximately 6 to 1; (b) d- and l-enantiomers of both methamphetamine and amphetamine were present, while the amount of l-methamphetamine was 3–4-fold greater than its counterpart. The data suggested that famprofazone (as the ingredient of Gewolen®) was likely the source of the prohibited drugs found in the case specimen.

Keywords: amphetamine; athlete; dope testing; famprofazone; forensic sciences; methamphetamine

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Doping Control Center, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan. 2: Department of Forensic Science, Central Police University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. 3: Department of Medical Technology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Publication date: March 1, 2007


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