Typing the 1.1 kb Control Region of Human Mitochondrial DNA in Japanese Individuals
This study presents a reliable method that uses high-fidelity long-range PCR and optimized primers to assess polymorphism and to genotype human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This method was used to analyze polymorphic sites in the human mtDNA control region, including hypervariable regions I, II, and III (HVI, HVII, and HVIII), from 124 unrelated Japanese individuals. In HVI, HVII, and HVIII, 80, 37, and 14 polymorphic sites were identified, respectively, excluding those in the homopolymeric cytosine stretch (C-stretch) regions. The region between HVI and HVII also contained 15 polymorphic sites. On the other hand, C-stretch length heteroplasmy in HVI or HVII was observed in 66 of 124 Japanese individuals (53%), which is much higher than in Caucasian populations. The variants in the C-stretch regions were characterized by counting the number of heteroplasmic peaks split from the single peak in homoplasmic sequences (i.e., 16244G and 16255G in HVI and 285G in HVII). Including the C-stretch length heteroplasmy, the 124 Japanese mtDNA samples were classified into 116 distinct haplotypes. The random match probability and the genetic diversity were estimated to be 0.95% and 0.998581, respectively, indicating that the method presented here has higher discrimination than the conventional method for mtDNA typing using HVI and HVII. [Correction added after publication 30 January 2007: in the preceding sentence random match probability and genetic diversity estimates were corrected from 0.95 and 0.998581%, respectively, to 0.95% and 0.998581, respectively.] The haplogroups and their frequencies observed in this study (i.e., D4; 13.7%, M7a1; 11.3%, D4a; 9.7% and M7b2; 8.9%) were similar to those observed in other studies of Japanese mtDNA polymorphism. The method described here is suitable for forensic applications, as shown by successful analysis of tissues from highly putrefied remains of an infant, which allowed maternal relationship to be determined via mtDNA haplotyping.
Document Type: Research Article
Department of Biochemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimikato, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan.
Department of Legal Medicine, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimokato, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan.
Publication date: March 1, 2007