Testing and Evaluation of 43 “Noncore” Y Chromosome Markers for Forensic Casework Applications
A developmental validation study was performed on three Y-STR multiplex systems, Multiplex III (MPIII), Multiplex IV (MPIV), and Multiplex V (MPV), to ascertain their potential applicability to forensic casework. MPIII contains eight Y-STRs, including DYS426, DYS435, DYS436, DYS441, DYS442, DYS446, DYS462, and Y-GATA-A10, and one InDel, YAP (DYS287). MPIV contains 21 Y-STR loci, including DYS443, DYS444, DYS445, DYS447, DYS448, DYS449, DYS452, DYS453, DYS454, DYS455, DYS456, DYS458, DYS463, DYS464, DYS468, DYS484, DYS522, DYS527, DYS531 DYS557, and DYS588. MPV contains 13 Y-STR loci, including DYS459, DYS476, DYS488, DYS513, DYS549, DYS561, DYS570, DYS575, DYS576, DYS590, DYS594, DYS598, and DYS607. Full genetic profiles were consistently obtained for all three multiplexes with 25–50 pg of male DNA. No significant amplification was observed with 1 g of female DNA. Each multiplex permitted the determination of the number of male donors in male:male DNA admixtures. Species specificity studies demonstrated some cross-reactivity with some primate samples. Environmentally compromised blood samples produced full or partial profiles after exposure to various conditions for up to 1 year. Full profiles were recovered from simulated casework specimens including cigarette butts and postcoital cervicovaginal swabs. Population data were collected to determine individual loci gene diversity and multiplex discriminatory capacity.