Skip to main content

Lead-Free Primer Residues: A Qualitative Characterization of Winchester WinClean, Remington/UMC LeadLess, Federal BallistiClean, and Speer Lawman CleanFire Handgun Ammunition

Buy Article:

$51.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


The elemental composition and postfiring residues of several “lead-free” or “nontoxic” centerfire handgun ammunition types currently available to the general public were examined. Offerings from Winchester, Remington/UMC, Federal and Speer were obtained from retail sources in both .45 ACP and 9 mm when possible. A total of 112 postfiring residue samples (SEM pins) were collected at varying distances from the muzzle, at two distances from target and from the shooter's hands. An additional 20 samples were collected by direct ignition of primers. Qualitative determinations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/electron dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis. All types tested contained aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Most contain traces of sulfur and calcium. Winchester WinClean and Remington LeadLess contained potassium as the principle ingredient. Federal BallistClean contained barium, while Speer Lawman CleanFire contained strontium. In the main, these compared favorably with manufacturers' MSDS publications and patents granted. The characterizations undertaken here will be of use to the forensic electron microscopist as these formulations gain popularity.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Data/Media
No Metrics

Keywords: criminalistics; energy dispersive spectrometry; forensic science; gunshot residue; lead-free primer residue; scanning electron microscopy

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Criminal Justice and Forensic Science, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705.

Publication date: 2006-05-01

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more