This article analyses the pressures on seahorses and explores conservation responses. It focuses on seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) but also considers pipefishes and seadragons, especially where they can fill gaps in seahorse knowledge. The charisma of many syngnathids can make
them good flagship species for threats and solutions in marine conservation. The article combines a synthesis of published literature with new data on the trade in seahorses for traditional medicine, aquarium display and curiosities. Most traded seahorses come from trawl by-catch, although
seahorses are also targeted. The total extraction is large, tens of millions of animals annually, and unsustainable. A first review of the effect of habitat change on syngnathids raises many questions, while suggesting that some species may cope better than others. The combination of pressures
means that many species of syngnathid are now included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species or national equivalents. In addition, seahorse exports from 175 countries are limited to sustainable levels under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of Wild Fauna
and Flora. Possible conservation measures include marine protected areas, fisheries management, select aquaculture ventures, trade regulation, improved governance (particularly) and consumer engagement.
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