Occurrence of four-spined Gasterosteus aculeatus in an isolated Croatian river population
An isolated population of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in Croatia was found to have a high incidence of specimens either having a fourth dorsal spine or showing remnants of a fourth spine. Juvenile individuals showed a 9·4% incidence of a fourth spine. The population was examined for asymmetry of the skeletal defensive complex in order to determine whether the additional spine could be the result of developmental instability, a response to predation or environmental conditions.
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