It has been demonstrated that growth hormone (GH) transgenic fish often posses a trait for fast growth. Here, we investigated the growth of F4‘all-fish’ GH transgenic carp Cyprinus carpio and their serum GH levels for a year. The results showed that F4 all-fish GH transgenic carp were significantly larger in body mass (c. two-fold, P < 0·001) and body length (c. 1·3 fold, P < 0·001), compared with the non-transgenic group. The discrepancy of serum GH levels between the transgenic carp group and control group is 54 fold, when the water temperature was 12–34° C. When the water temperature decreased to 3·5° C in January, the discrepancy was 256 fold. The serum GH level of the transgenic group was relatively constant, while that of control varied greatly based on month and water temperature. The changes of growth rates between the transgenic group and the control group were similar for a year. Taken together, the results indicated that F4 all-fish GH transgenic carp had not only higher and constant serum GH levels but also a significant fast-growing effect, compared with the control. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a one-year investigation of growth trait and serum growth hormone level in F4 all-fish GH transgenic carp.