Relationships of genetic diversity at microsatellite loci and quantitative traits were examined in hatchery-produced populations of Japanese flounder using a relatively straightforward experiment. Five hatchery populations produced by wild-caught and domesticated broodstocks were used to examine the effects of different levels (one to three generations) of domestication on the genetic characteristics of hatchery populations. Allelic richness at seven microsatellite loci in all hatchery populations was lower than that in a wild population. Genetic variation measured by allelic richness and heterozygosity tended to decrease with an increase in generations of domestication. In addition, the degree of genetic differentiation from a wild population increased with an increase in generations of domestication. Significant differences in three morphometric traits (dorsal and anal fin ray counts and vertebral counts) and three physiological traits (high temperature, salinity and formalin tolerance) were observed among the hatchery populations. The degree of phenotypic difference among populations was larger in morphometric traits than in physiological traits. The divergence pattern of some quantitative traits was similar to that observed at microsatellite loci, suggesting that domestication causes the decrease of genetic variation and the increase of genetic differentiation for some quantitative traits concomitantly with those for microsatellite loci. Significant positive correlation was observed between FST and the degree of phenotypic difference in the three morphometric traits and formalin tolerance, indicating that genetic variation at microsatellite loci predicts the degree of phenotypic divergence in some quantitative traits.