Deceptive female oviposition behaviour elicits male ejaculation in the European bitterling
In European bitterling Rhodeus amarus, fish that lay their eggs in the gill chambers of living freshwater mussels, females perform conspicuous behaviours associated with spawning that increases the probability of males performing ejaculatory behaviour and participating in a spawning. A significant positive association was detected between behaviour in which a female performs a spawning action but without releasing eggs, here termed ‘deceptive female oviposition’, and ejaculatory behaviour by courting males.
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