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Downstream migrations and population characteristics of eels Anguilla anguilla were studied between 1967–1982 and 2002–2005 using a fish trap and electrofishing in the Girnock Burn, a small oligotrophic upland sub-catchment of the River Dee, north-east Scotland, 70 km from the tidal limit. In limited mark-recapture studies, 9% of eels were recaptured up to three times and 97% of all recaptures were made at the same electrofishing site. The recaptured eels had a low mean growth rate of c. 13 mm year−1. Smaller eels appeared to show preferences for shallower habitats with small boulder and gravel–sand substrata. Trap catches exhibited seasonal modes in total length at 140–180 mm in late spring, and 320–340 mm in early autumn, probably relating to water temperatures and discharges. From other studies, it is inferred that the spring mode comprised sexually undifferentiated nomadic eels and the autumn mode differentiated males beginning their spawning migration. Large female eels were rare. The fish trap appears to have formed a major barrier to upstream migration since its construction in 1966. In-stream density has decreased significantly since then from 16 to three eels 100 m−2, biomass from 260 to 78 g 100 m−2 and emigrants from 700 to 100 individuals year−1. Emigrants have comprised c. 5% of the standing stock year−1 since the 1970s. The proportion of larger differentiated eels in the Girnock Burn has, however, remained relatively constant and escapement has been c. 100–200 (probably male) eels year−1 since the late 1960s. Evidence, including that from other northerly British rivers, is reviewed to assess the possible impacts of Europe-wide declines in glass eel recruitment since the 1980s. It is recommended that the data series be maintained, plus further sex determination and ageing studies. Installation of an upstream trap to capture immigrants and studies of recolonization are proposed.